Incomes that people receive in a market economy tend to be determined by which principle?

To each according to need
To each equally
To each according to productivity
To each according to his political influence

Farmers, who produce a product absolutely essential for life, earn much less on average than superstar athletes, who produce a service that is a frill. Economic theory explains this difference by:

noting that farmers are not unionized.
examining the information problems in a complex economy.
looking at the average productivity of these professions.
asking what the value of one more farmer or superstar athlete is.

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