How are the issues of fairness and efficiency related?

They are the same thing.
Issues of fairness are contained within the issue of efficiency.
Issues of efficiency are contained within the topic of fairness.
They are two separate criteria for judging the desirability of economic systems or results.

Philosophers argue about what is a just or fair distribution of income by doing a thought experiment. They imagine people choosing the rules of the society while operating behind a veil of partial ignorance, so that they will know what kind of society will result, but without knowing how they will benefit personally. This way of reasoning about issues is known as:

human-capital theory.
winner-take-all theory.
compensating-differentials theory.
social-contract theory.

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